Genus Brotogeris


Read up on this parrot species in the online and print articles listed below. Print articles can be found at your local library or via interlibrary loan.

Online Publications
  • Atyeo, W.T. "Aralichus porrectus (Megnin & Trouessart) and related feather mite species (Acarina, Pterolichidae) from parrots of the genus Brotogeris Vigors (Aves, Psittacidae)," Syste-Parasitol, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 14 (Sept. 1, 1989): 101-111. ill.
  • Atyeo, Warren T. "Pararalichus gen.n. (Acarina, Pterolichidae) from New World parrots (Aves, Psittacidae)," Zoologica Scripta, 18:2 (Apr. 1989): 331-346.
  • Avianweb.com. Brotogeris as Pets.
  • Brightsmith, Donald J. "Competition, predation and nest niche shifts among tropical cavity nesters: ecological evidence," Journal of Avian Biology, 36:1 (Jan. 2005): 74-83. (B. cyanoptera) [pdf]
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "Use of Arboreal Termitaria by Nesting Birds in the Peruvian Amazon," The Condor, 102:3 (Aug. 2000): 529-538. (B. sanctithomae, B. cyanoptera)
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "What Eats Parrots?" Bird Talk, Feb. 2000.
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "Wild Science: Cooperative Breeding in Parrots and Introduction to the Column Wild Science," originally published in Bird Talk, 18 (Oct. 1999).
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "Wild Science: Great Escapes: Canary-Winged Parakeet," Bird Talk, 19 (June 2000): 26-33.
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "Wild Science: Nest Sites of Wild Parrots," Bird Talk, 18 (Feb. 2000): 34-35 (mentions orange chin, yellow-chevroned, white wing & grey cheek).
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "Wild Science: Predation and the Sociable Parrot," Bird Talk, 18 (Jan. 2000): 22-25 (mentions white wing; cobalt wing photo).
  • Brooks, Daniel M.; Pando-Vasquez, Lucio; Ocmin-Petit, Angel. "The Relationship between environmental stability and aviary population changes in Amazonia," Ornitologia Neotropical, 16:3 (2005): 289-296. (B. versicolorus)
  • Buckley, F. G.; Buckley, P. A. "Upside-down Resting by Young Green-Rumped Parrotlets (Forpus passerinus)," The Condor, 70:1 (Jan. 1968): 89. (B. jugularis)
  • Butler, Christopher J. "Feral Parrots in the Continental United States and United Kingdom: Past, Present, and Future," Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 19:2 (June 2005): 142–149.
  • Caparroz, R.; Miyaki, C. Y.; Baker, A. J. "Characterization of microsatellite loci in the Blue-and-gold Macaw, Ara ararauna (Psittaciformes: Aves)," Molecular Ecology Notes, 3:3 (Sep. 2003): 441-443.
  • Chapman, C. A.; Chapman, L. J.; Lefebvre, L. "Variability in Parrot Flock Size: Possible Functions of Communal Roosts," The Condor, 91:4 (Nov. 1989): 842-847. (B. jugularis)
  • Davis, Tristan J. "Distribution and Natural History of Some Birds from the Departments of San Martin and Amazonas, Northern Peru," The Condor, 88:1 (Feb. 1986): 50-56.
  • Eisenmann, Eugene. "Behavior of Orange-Chinned Parakeets in Panama," The Condor, 70:1 (Jan. 1968): 86.
  • Emmons, Louise H.; Stark, Nellie M.. "Elemental Composition of a Natural Mineral Lick in Amazonia," Biotropica, 11:4 (Dec. 1979): 311-313. (B. cyanoptera)
  • Etcheverry, Angela V.;Alem├ín, Carlos E. Trucco. "AlReproductive Biology of Erythrina falcata (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae), Biotropica, 37:1 (Mar. 2005): 54-63. (B. jugularis, B. cyanoptera)
  • Francisco, Mercival Roberto and Galetti, Pedro Mangel, Jr. "Cytotaxonomic Considerations on Neotropical Psittacidae Birds and Description of Three New Karyotypes," Hereditas, 134:3 (Oct. 2001): 225-228. (B. verisicolorus, B. sanctithomae)
  • Fjeldsa, Niels Krabbe. "An unpublished major collection of birds from the Bolivian highlands," Zoologica Scripta, 18:2 (Apr. 1989): 321-329. (mentions B. versicolorus)
  • Francisco, Mercival Roberto, de Oliveira Lunardi, Vitor, Galetti, Mauro. "Massive Seed Predation of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Bombacaceae) by Parakeets Brotogeris versicolurus (Psittacidae) in a Forest Fragment in Brazil." Biotropica, v. 34:4: 613-615.
  • Galetti,Mauro; Aleixo, Alexandre. "Effects of palm heart harvesting on avian frugivores in the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil," Journal of Applied Ecology, 35:2 (Apr. 1998): 286-293.
  • Gilardi, James D.; Munn, Charles A. "Patterns of Activity, Flocking, and Habitat Use in Parrots of the Peruvian Amazon," The Condor, 100:4 (Nov. 1998): 641-653.
  • Gilardi, K. V.; Lowenstine, L. J.; Gilardi, J.D.; Munn, C.A. "A survey for selected viral, chlamydial, and parasitic diseases in wild dusky-headed parakeets (Aratinga weddellii) and tui parakeets (Brotogeris sanctithomae) in Peru," Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 1995 Oct;31(4):523-8. [also at PubMed]. (B. sanctithomae)
  • Grey cheek specific articles.
  • Harris, Robbie. Brotogeris articles.
  • Hardy, John William. "Epigamic and Reproductive Behavior of the Orange-Fronted Parakeet," The Condor, 65:3 (May 1963): 169-199. (B. jugularis)
  • Hartman, Frank A. "Heart Weight in Birds," The Condor, 57:4 (Jul. 1955): 221-238. (B. jugularis)
  • Hartman, Frank A; Brownell, Katharine A. "Lipids in the Locomotor Muscles of Birds," The Condor, 63:5 (Sep. 1961): 403-409. (B. jugularis)
  • Howell, Thomas R. "Birds of a Second-Growth Rain Forest Area of Nicaragua," The Condor, 59:2 (Mar. 1957): 73-111. (B. jugularis)
  • Janzen, Daniel H. "Birds and the Ant X Acacia Interaction in Central America, with Notes on Birds and Other Myrmecophytes," The Condor, 71:3 (Jul. 1969): 240-256.
  • Janzen, Daniel H. "Ficus ovalis Seed Predation by an Orange-chinned Parakeet (Brotogeris jugularies) in Costa Rica." Short Communications, Auk, v. 98, Oct. 1981: 841-844.
  • Janzen, Daniel H. "Escape in Space by Sterculia Apetala Seeds from the Bug Dysdercus Fasciatus in a Costa Rican Deciduous Forest," Ecology, 53:2 (Mar. 1972): 350-361.
  • Janzen, Daniel H. "Patterns of Herbivory in a Tropical Deciduous Forest," Biotropica, 13:4 (Dec. 1981): 271-282. (B. jugularis)
  • Jordano, Pedro. "Fig-Seed Predation and Dispersal by Birds," Biotropica, 15:1 (Mar. 1983): 38-41. (B. jugularis)
  • Kesler, Dylan C.; Haigh, Susan M. "Selection of arboreal termitaria for nesting by cooperatively breeding Micronesian Kingfishers Todiramphus cinnamominus reichenbachii," Ibis, 147:1 (Jan. 2005): 188-196. (B. sanctithomae and B. cyanoptera)
  • Leck, Charles F. "Seasonal Changes in Feeding Pressures of Fruit-and Nectar-Eating Birds in Panama," The Condor, 74:1 (Spring 1972): 54-60. (B. jugularis)
  • Luthgen W, Traub C. "Prophylaxis and therapy of psittacosis in the canary-winged parakeet (Brotogeris versicolorus chiriri)," Deutsch Tierarztl Wochenschr, 88:9 (Sep. 5, 1981):362-4. [PubMed].
  • Mabb, Karen T. Researching Parrots in the Wilds of California’s Suburban Jungles," AFA Watchbird Magazine (Jan/Feb 2001) Accessed: 1/21/06 at Parrot Project of Los Angeles.
  • Marsden, Stuart J.; Whiffin, Mark; Galetti, Mauro. "Bird diversity and abundance in forest fragments and Eucalyptus plantations around an Atlantic forest reserve, Brazil," Biodiversity and Conservation, 10:5 (May 2001): 737-751.
  • Masello, Juan F.; Quillfeldt, Petra. "Chick Growth and Breeding Success of the Burrowing Parrot, The Condor, 104:3 (Aug. 2002): 574-586.
  • Mayr, G.; Manegold, A.; Johansson, U. S. "Monophyletic groups within 'higher land birds'– comparison of morphological and molecular data," Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 41:4 (Nov. 2003): 233-248. 
  • Moegenburg, Susan M.; Levey, Douglas J. "Prospects for conserving biodiversity in Amazonian extractive reserves," Ecology Letters, 5:3 (May 2002): 320-324. (B. versicolorous)
  • Nos, R. and M. Camerino. "Feeding behavior of 5 species of Parrots Aves Psittacidae," Miscellania Zoologica, (1984) 8:242-252 [See abstract in bibliography].
  • Notes and News, The Condor, 66:4 (Jul. 1964): 310.
  • Oniki, Yoshika. "Some Temperatures of Panamanian Birds," The Condor, 74:2 (Summer 1972): 209-215. (B. jugularis)
  • Panigrahy, B.; Clark, F. D.; Hall, C. F.. "Mycobacteriosis in psittacine birds," Avian Dis., 27:4 (Oct.-Dec. 1983): 1166-8. [PubMed].
  • Pearson, David L. "Range Extensions and New Records for Bird Species in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia," The Condor, 77: 1 (Spring 1975): 96-99. (B. sanctithomae)
  • Pearson, David L. "The Relation of Foliage Complexity to Ecological Diversity of Three Amazonian Bird Communities," The Condor, 77:4 (Winter 1975): 453-466. (B. cyanoptera)
  • Pearson, David L. "Vertical Stratification of Birds in a Tropical Dry Forest," The Condor, 73:1 (Spring 1971): 46-55. (B. cyanoptera)
  • Power, Dennis M. "Agonistic Behavior and Vocalizations of Orange-Chinned Parakeets in Captivity," The Condor, 68:6 (Nov. 1966): 562-581.
  • Power, Dennis M. "Epigamic and Reproductive Behavior of Orange-Chinned Parakeets in Captivity," The Condor, 69:1 (Jan. 1967): 28-41.
  • Ragusa-Netto J. "Exploitation of Erythrina dominguezii Hassl. (Fabaceae) nectar by perching birds in a dry forest in western Brazil," Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2002 Nov;62(4B):877-83. Epub 2003 Feb 17. PMID: 12659040 [Also at PubMed]. (B. v. chiriri)
  • Ragusa-Netro J. "Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae) nectar by parrots in a Tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil)," Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2005 May;65(2):339-44. PMID: 16097737 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. (B. v. chiriri)
  • Ragusa-Netto J. "Flowers, fruits, and the abundance of the yellow-chevroned parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) at a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil)," Brazillian Journal of Biology, 2004 Nov;64(4):867-77. [also at PubMed].
  • Robinson, Scott K. "Habitat Selection and Foraging Ecology of Raptors in Amazonian Peru," Biotropica, 26:4 (Dec. 1994): 443-458.
  • Rosenberg, Gary H. "Habitat Specialization and Foraging Behavior by Birds of Amazonian River Islands in Northeastern Peru," The Condor, 92:2 (May 1990): 427-443. (B. versicolorus, B. chrysopterus, B. sanctithomae)
  • Scott, Colin. Brotogeris Parakeets, Nov. 1998.
  • Shady Pine Aviary. Brotogeris Parakeets.
  • Skutch, Alexander F. "Arils as Food of Tropical American Birds," The Condor, 82:1 (Feb. 1980): 31-42. (B. jugularis)
  • Tashian, Richard E. "The Birds of Southeastern Guatemala," The Condor, 55:4 (Jul. 1953): 198-210. (B. jugularis)
  • Traylor, Melvin A. "Altitudinal Variation in Bolivian Birds," The Condor, 52:3 (May 1950): 123-126. (B. v. chiriri)
  • Vicentini, Alberto; Fischer, Erich A. "Pollination of Moronobea coccinea (Clusiaceae) by the Golden-Winged Parakeet in the Central Amazon," Biotropica, 31:4 (Dec. 1999): 692-696.
  • Voren, Howard. "Brotogeris: The International Diplomat," Birds USA, (1996/97): 110-112.
  • Voren, Howard. "Brotogeris: The Masters of Adaptation," Bird Talk, 15 (May 1997): 50-57.

Print Publications
  • Alderton, David. The Atlas of Parrots of the World (1991): 286-294 (section on Brotogeris).
  • Alderton, David. "Captive Breeding" in Companion Bird Medicine, ed. Burr, Elisha W., Iowa State University Press: Ames, IA (1987): 15-19 (Brotogeris: 16).
  • Alderton, David. You and Your Pet Bird: A Complete Guide to Cage & Aviary Birds: Their Care, Health, and Behavior, Alfred A. Knopf: New York (1992): 90.
  • Anderson, Sue & Elizabeth. The Plight of Brotogeris, Bird Talk, 19 (May 2001): 60-69.
  • Aschenborn, Carl. Keeping and Breeding Parrots: 52-59 (section on Brotogeris).
  • "Back Talk: Canary Wings--They Love L.A.," Bird Talk, 19 (Sept. 2000): 4.
  • Bond, Matthew W. "Ask the Vet: Brotogeris and Avian Tuberculosis," Bird Breeder, 67 (Oct. 1995): 71.
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "Termite mounds as an avian nesting substrate: escape from competition or predation?"
  • Brightsmith, Donald J. "White-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus) and Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri)." In The Birds of North America, No. 386–387 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 1999.
  • Brightsmith, Donald J. "The Wild Side of Brotogeris Parakeets," Bird Breeder, June 1999.
  • Coburn, John. The Professional's Book of Conures, New Jersey: T.F.H. Publications, Inc. (1991): 11,81,104-115 (Brotogeris section, also has many photos scattered throughout book).
  • Conures - Parrot Information, Parrot Cages UK (article on conure/Brotogeris care, housing, behavior, etc.).
  • Davis, Christine. "Common Types of Caged Birds and Comments on Their Temperaments and Pet Quality" in Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, ed. Walter J. Rosskopf, Jr. and Richard A. Woerpel, Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins (1996): 11-18 (grey cheeks/Brotogeris: 14).
  • "Dear Bird Breeder: Feral Flocks of Brotogeris," Bird Breeder, 67 (Feb. 1995): 8.
  • de Grahl, M. The Parrot Family, New York: Arco Publishing Inc. (1979): 121-123 (photos: 129-130).
  • DeLucca, E.J., L.R. Shirley and C. Lanier. "Karyotype Studies in Twenty-two Species of Parrots (Psittaciformes: Aves)," Revista Brasileira de Genetica, 14 (1991): 73-98 (mentions Tui and canary wing).
  • Doane, Bonnie Munro and Thomas Qualkinbush. My Parrot, My Friend, USA: Macmillan General Reference (1994): 27.
  • Forshaw, Joseph M. Parrots of the World, 3rd ed. (1989): 527-540 (section on Brotogeris).
  • Forster, Susan (Chamberlain). "Perky Pocket Parrots," Bird Talk, 9 (March 1991): 80-95.
  • Forster, Susan (Chamberlain). "Small Talk: More About Pocket Parrots," Bird Talk, 9 (May 1991): 10-12.
  • Grindol, Diane. "FYI: Brotogeris Society Formed," Bird Talk, 19 (July 2001): p. 8.
  • Hampe, Helmut. "Brotogerys Parrakeets (sic)," Avicultural Magazine, 1939, v. 4, p. 402-406.
  • Hughes, Colin R.; Melland, Rebecca R.; Beissinger, Steven R. "Primer Notes: Polymorphic trinucleotide microsatellite loci for a neotropical parrot, the green-rumped parrotlet, Forpus passerinus," Molecular Ecology, 7:9 (Sept. 1998): 1247-1263.
  • Juniper, Tony and Parr, Mike. Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998: 178-181,488-494.
  • Kolar, Kurt and Karl Heinz Spitzer. Encyclopedia of Parakeets (1990): 10,36,170,172-177.
  • Low, Rosemary. Parrots in Aviculture: A Photo Reference Guide, Blandford, London: Silvo Mattacchione & Co., 1992: 226-232 (section on Brotogeris).
  • Low, Rosemary. The Parrots of South America, John Gifford Ltd.: London, 1972: 159-171 (section on Brotogeris).
  • Low, Rosemary. Parrots: Their Care and Breeding, 2nd ed., Blandford, London: Silvo Mattacchione & Co., 1986: 274-279 (section on Brotogeris).
  • Meyer de Schauensee, Rodolphe. The Species of Birds of South America and Their Distribution, Norberth, PA: Academy of Natural Sciences, 1966: 129-130 (small section on Brotogeris).
  • Mizera, Richard. "Small Birds: Take Flight With the Canary Wing," Bird Talk, 20 (July 2002): p. 74-75.
  • Raney, Patty, Kress, Bill, Kress, Nancy, Beck, Karen, Fortier, Adrian, French, Aaron, Hill, Van, Viessman, Grace, From Your Backyard: Parakeet Valley," Birder's World, 20, no.1 (Feb. 2006):68-70 [WW CWP].
  • Rogers, Cyril H. Encyclopedia of Cage and Aviary Birds, New York: McMillan Publishing Co., 1975: 133-134.
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr., Richard W. Woerpel, Rosalie Lane, and Susan Reed Blake. "Avian Tuberculosis in the Gray-cheeked Parakeet and Other Related Brotogeris Parakeets," Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Avian Veterinarians (1986): 219-236.
  • Silva, Tony. Psittaculture: The Breeding, Rearing & Management of Parrots, Ontario, Canada: Silvo Mattacchione & Co. (1991): 270-273 (small section on Brotogeris).
  • Stoddard III, Hannis L. "Causes and Cures: Earthquake Preparedness," Bird Talk, 8 (Apr. 1990): 14.
  • Swain, R.B. "Palms and parrots." Horticulture. 66 no. 7 (July 1988): 48. [CWP].
  • Thompson, Dale R. "Brotogeris - An Introduction," ASA Avicultural Bulletin (June 1993): 12-13.
  • Thompson, Dale R. "Brotogeris: Pocket Parrots (Grey cheeked parakeets and other members of this genus can be inquisitive, affectionate pets)," Bird Talk, 7 (Sep. 1989): 72-77.
  • Voren, Howard. "Parrots of the New World," Birds USA, (1998/99): 4-22 (section on Brotogeris: 20,22).