Medical Problems

Suggested Reading Materials for Brotogeris Medical Problems

Oct. 1998 - Having gone through some medical problems with my Brotogeris parakeet, I decided to share my research materials list with others that may be having similar health problems with their Brotogeris parakeet. The following resources were found to be very useful. Topics covered are being accident prone, avian gout, avian TB, bacterial hepatitis, chlamydiosis (psittacosis), chronic egg laying, diet, toxicity, feather plucking and self mutilation, giardia, health, hygiene, safety, megabacteriosis, myialges nudus, blood chemistry, and veterinary sites.

Accident Prone
Avian Gout
Avian Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium)
  • "Avian Tuberculosis" - parrotletranch.com.
  • "Avian Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium)" - Avianbiotech.com.
  • B303 - TUBERCULOSIS (AVIAN) - SPC.
  • Bond, Matthew W. "Ask the Vet: Brotogeris and Avian Tuberculosis," Bird Breeder, 67 (Oct. 1995): 71.
  • Butcher, G.D., W.M. Reed, R.W. Winterfield, and A. Nilipour. "Mycobacterium infection in a grey-cheeked parakeet," Avian Diseases, 34 (1990 Oct-Dec.): 1023-1026.
  • Feldman, William Hugh. "Avian Tuberculosis Infections," Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Co., 1938.
  • Forster, Friederike and Helga Gerlach. "Mycobacteria in Psittaciformes," Proceedings of the First International Conference on Zoological and Avian Medicine, 1987: 39-56 (grey cheeks: 42,46-47,51).
  • Fudge, Alan M., Loni McEntee, and R.E. Schmidt. "Cutaneous and Systemic Tuberculosis in a Grey-cheeked parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhopterus)," Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, Miami, 1986: 215-218 (mentions grey cheeks).
  • Harris, Robbie. "Pockets Full of Pleasure" and "More About Grey Cheeks," Bird Talk, 16 (Jun. 1998): 40-42,44-54,58-59. (mentions avian TB)
  • Panigraphy, B., F.D. Clark, and C.F. Hall. "Mycobacteriosis in Psittacine Birds," Avian Diseases, 27 (1983): 1166-1168 (mentions grey cheeks).
  • Pesek, Linda. "Zoonotic Diseases - Part III, Bird to Human Transmission: Avian Tuberculosis (Mycobacteriosis)," Winged Wisdom (July 1998; mentions grey cheeks).
  • Remington, Kitty Hall. "Atypical Mycobacteriosis in a Mixed Collection of Caged Birds," Proceeding of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1993: 256-262.
  • Riddell, C. and D.R. Atkinson. "Two Cases of Mycobacteriosis in Psittacine Birds," Canadian Veterinary Journal 22 (May 1981): 144-147 (mentions Brotogeris).
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr., Richard W. Woerpel, Rosalie Lane, and Sue Reed Blake. "Avian Tuberculosis in the Gray-cheeked Parakeet and Other Related Brotogeris Parakeets," Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1986: 219-236.
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr., Richard W. Woerpel, and Lane, Rosalie. "Conures, Lovebirds and Grey Cheeks: Common Health Problems," Bird Talk, 3 (Sept. 1985): 35-36,38-39.
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr. and Richard W. Woerpel. "Pet Avian Conditions and Syndromes" in Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, ed. Walter J. Rosskopf, Jr. and Richard A. Woerpel, Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996: 260-282 (grey cheeks/Brotogeris: 274-275).
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr. and Richard W. Woerpel. "Successful Treatment of Avian Tuberculosis in Pet Psittacines" in Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, ed. Walter J. Rosskopf, Jr. and Richard A. Woerpel, Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996: 848-849 (grey cheeks/Brotogeris).
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr. and Richard W. Woerpel. "Using Clinical Pathology Results in Avian Clinical Medicine with Case Reports," Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1991: 238-251 (re: grey cheeks).
  • Styles, Darrel K. "Avian Tuberculosis: The Disease and Its Management."
  • Vaughn, Sam. "Causes and Treatments of Mycobacteriosis," Bird Breeder On-line, (Jan. 1999) (letter in "Ask the Vet" section--Q & A).
  • VanDerHeyden, Nicole. "Avian Tuberculosis," Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994: 399-401.
  • VanDerHeyden, Nicole. "Avian Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Attempted Treatment," Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1986: 203-214 (mentions grey cheeks).
  • VanDerHeyden, Nicole. "Update of Avian Mycobacteriosis," Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994: 53-61.
  • Wissman, Margaret A. "Causes & Cures: Battling Tuberculosis," Bird Talk, 15 (Aug. 1997): 102-104 (mentions Brotogeris).
  • Wissman, Margaret A. and Bill Parsons. "Smalltalk: Avian Tuberculosis," Bird Talk, 13 (Feb. 1995): 12 (mentions grey cheeks).
Bacterial Hepatitis
  • Beck, J├╝rgen and Michael Nassal. "Sequence- and Structure-Specific Determinants in the Interaction between the RNA Encapsidation Signal and Reverse Transcriptase of Avian Hepatitis B Viruses," Journal of Virology, 71 (July 1997): 4971-4980.
  • Madon, Jerzy and Hubert E. Blum. "Receptor-Mediated Delivery of Hepatitis B Virus DNA and Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides to Avian Liver Cells," Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, 1996.
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr., Richard W. Woerpel, and Lane, Rosalie. "Conures, Lovebirds and Grey Cheeks: Common Health Problems," Bird Talk, 3 (Sept. 1985): 35-36,38-39.
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr. and Richard W. Woerpel. "Pet Avian Conditions and Syndromes" in Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, ed. Walter J. Rosskopf, Jr. and Richard A. Woerpel, Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996: 260-282 (grey cheeks/Brotogeris: 274-275).
Chlamydiosis
  • Compendium on Psittacosis Control," Proceedings of the International Aviculturists Society, January 11 - 15, 1995.
  • Gestier, Tony. "Psittacosis in Birds and People."
  • Owen, Mike. "Psittacosis," Birds N Ways.
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr., Richard W. Woerpel, and Lane, Rosalie. "Conures, Lovebirds and Grey Cheeks: Common Health Problems," Bird Talk, 3 (Sept. 1985): 35-36,38-39.
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr. and Richard W. Woerpel. "Pet Avian Conditions and Syndromes" in Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, ed. Walter J. Rosskopf, Jr. and Richard A. Woerpel, Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996: 260-282 (grey cheeks/Brotogeris: 274-275).
  • Stoddard, III, Hannis L. "Understanding Psittacosis," Hotspot for Birds.
Chronic Egg Laying
Diet/Toxicity Problems
Feather Mutilation (Plucking/Picking)
Giardia
Health, Hygiene, and Safety
Megabacteriosis - (normally associated with budgies but can affect grey cheeks as well)
  • Gestier, Anthony W. "Treatment of Megabacteria in Budgerigars by In-Water Medication with Soluble Amphotericin B," Proceedings of the International Conference on Veterinary Medicine: Diseases of Psittacine Birds, (May 15 - June 30, 1998).
  • Pennycott, Tom. "Investigations into Megabacteriosis," Caged & Aviary Birds, (15 & 22 February 1997).
  • Pesek, Linda. "Megabacteria (a Fungus)," Winged Wisdom (Feb. 2001).
Myialges nudus - a skin mite (Sarcoptiform Mange)
  • Greve, J.H. and C.S. Uphoff. "Mange caused by Myialges (Metamicrolichus) nudus in a grey-cheeked parakeet," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Schaumburg, IL: The Association, 185 (July 1, 1984): 101-102. ill.
  • Pesek, Linda. "Common Skin and Feather Disorders, Part II," Winged Wisdom (Oct. 2000).
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr., Richard W. Woerpel, and Lane, Rosalie. "Conures, Lovebirds and Grey Cheeks: Common Health Problems," Bird Talk, 3 (Sept. 1985): 35-36,38-39.
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr. and Richard W. Woerpel. "Pet Avian Conditions and Syndromes" in Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, ed. Walter J. Rosskopf, Jr. and Richard A. Woerpel, Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996: 260-282 (grey cheeks/Brotogeris: 274-275).
Normal Blood Chemistry for Grey Cheeks
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr., Richard W. Woerpel, and Marilyn Monahan-Brennan. "Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Diagnostic Tools" in Companion Bird Medicine, ed. Elisha W. Burr, Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1987: 180-196 (grey cheeks: 185).
Other
  • Mohan, R. "Clinical and Laboratory Observations of Reovirus Infection in a Cockatoo and a Grey-Cheek Parrot," Proceedings of the International Conference on Avian Medicine," 1984: 29-33.
  • Murphy, Joel. "Psittacine Fatty Liver Syndrome," Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians," 1992: 78-82.
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr., Richard W. Woerpel, and Rosalie Lane. "Conures, Lovebirds and Grey Cheeks: Common Health Problems," Bird Talk, 3 (Sept. 1985): 35-36,38-39.
  • Rosskopf, Walter J., Jr. and Richard W. Woerpel. "Pet Avian Conditions and Syndromes" in Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, ed. Walter J. Rosskopf, Jr. and Richard A. Woerpel, Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996: 260-282 (grey cheeks/Brotogeris: 274-275).
  • Schmidt, R.E., L.R. Dustin, and R.W. Slevin. "Proventricular Adenocarcinoma in a Budgerigar and a Grey-cheeked Parakeet," Association of Avian Veterinarians Today, 1988: 140-142.
  • Wissman, Margaret. "Anatomy 101," Bird Talk, 16 (Dec. 1998): 50-56, 58-62.
Other medical sites